CHAPTER 158
PENAL CODE

Arrangement of Sections

PART I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Chapter I
Preliminary

1. Short title.

3. Saving of certain laws.

Chapter II
Interpretation

4. General rule of construction.

5. Definition of certain expressions and terms.

Chapter III
Territorial application of this code

6. Extent of jurisdiction of Courts.

7. Offence committed partly within and partly beyond the jurisdiction.

Chapter IV
General rules as to criminal responsibility

8. Ignorance of law.

9. Bona fide claim of right.

10. Intention and motive.

11. Mistake of fact.

12. Presumption of sanity.

13. Insanity.

14. Intoxication.

15. Immature age.

16. Judicial officers.

17. Compulsion.

18. Defence of person and property.

19. Use of force in effecting arrest.

20. [Repealed]

21. Persons not to be twice criminally responsible for same offence.

Chapter V
Parties and offences

22. Principal offenders.

23. Joint offenders.

24. Counselling to commit an offence.

Chapter VI
Punishments

25. Different kinds of punishment.

26. Imprisonment.

27. Minimum sentence.

28. Fines.

29. Forfeiture.

30. Compensation.

30A. Compensation for owner deprived of property.

31. Costs.

32. Security for keeping the peace.

33. [Repealed]

34. Certain provisions of Criminal Procedure Code to apply to recognizances under sections 32 and 33.

35. General Punishment for misdemeanours.

36. Sentences cumulative, unless otherwise ordered.

37. Escaped convicts to serve unexpired sentences when recaptured.

38. [Repealed]

PART II

CRIMES

Division I - Offences against public order

Chapter VII
Treason and other offences against the authority of the republic

39. Treason.

40. Concealment of treason.

41. Two witnesses.

42. Limitations as to trials for treason.

43	[Repealed]

44. Inciting to mutiny.

45. Aiding in acts of mutiny.

46. Inducing desertion.

47. Aiding prisoner of war to escape.

48. Definition of overt act.

49. Definitions.

50. Power to prohibit importation of publication.

51. Offences in relation to importation of prohibited publications.

52. Delivery of prohibited publication to police station.

53. Power to examine suspected packages.

54. Seditious intention.

55. Seditious offences.

56. Legal proceedings.

57. Evidence.

58. Unlawful oath to commit capital offence.

59. Other unlawful oaths.

60. Defence of compulsion.

61. Unlawful drilling.

62. Publication of false news with intent to cause fear and alarm to the public.

62A. Defamation of President.

Chapter VIII
Offences affecting relations with foreign states and external tranquillity

63. Defamation of foreign princes.

64. [Repealed]

65. Piracy.

Chapter IX
Unlawful societies, assemblies, riots and other offences against public tranquillity

66. Definition of society and unlawful society.

67. Managing unlawful society.

68. Being member of unlawful society.

69. Prosecutions under sections 67 and 68.

70. Power of entry, arrest, search, etc.

71. Declaration by President.

72. Forfeiture of insignia, etc.

73. Definition of unlawful assembly and riot.

74. Punishment of unlawful assembly.

75. Punishment of riot.

76. Proclamation for rioters or assembly to disperse.

77. Dispersal of rioters or persons assembled after proclamation.

78. Calling on military forces.

79. Rioting or failure to disperse after proclamation.

80. Obstructing proclamation.

81. Rioters destroying buildings, etc.

82. Injury to buildings by rioters.

83. Riotously preventing sailing of ship.

84. Possession of fire-arms, etc.

85. Forcible entry.

86. Forcible detainer.

87. Affray.

88. Challenge to a duel.

89. Threatening violence, etc.

89A. Incitement to violence and disobedience of the law.

90. Assembling to smuggle.

Division II - Offences against the administration of lawful authority

Chapter X
Corruption and the abuse of office

91. Official corruption.

92. Extortion by public officers.

93. Receipt of property for favours.

94. Officers with special duties to property.

95. False claims by officials.

96. Abuse of authority of office.

97. False certificates by public officers.

98. Unauthorised administration of oaths.

99. False assumption of authority.

100. Personating public officers.

101. Threat of injury to persons employed in public services.

Chapter XI
Offences relating to the administration of justice

102. Perjury and subornation of perjury.

103. False statement by interpreters.

104. Punishment of perjury and subornation.

105. Evidence on charge of perjury.

105A. Contradictory statements.

106. Fabricating evidence.

107. False swearing.

108. Deceiving witnesses.

109. Destroying evidence.

110. Conspiracy to defeat justice and interference with witnesses.

111. Compounding felonies.

112. Compounding penal actions.

112A. Misprision of felony.

113. Advertisements for stolen property.

114. Offences relating to judicial proceedings.

114A. Sanction of Attorney-General.

Chapter XII
Rescues, escapes and obstructing officers of court of law

115. Rescue.

116. Escape.

117. Aiding prisoners to escape.

118. Taking property under lawful seizure.

119. Obstructing court officers.

Chapter XIII
Miscellaneous offences against public morality

120. Frauds by public officers.

121. Neglect of duty by public officers.

122. False information to person employed in the public service.

122A. False reports causing wasteful employment of police.

123. Disobedience of statutory duty.

124. Disobedience of lawful order.

Division III - Offences injuries to the public in general

Chapter XIV
Offences relating to religion

125. Insult to religion of any class.

126. Disturbing religious assemblies.

127. Trespassing on burial places, etc.

128. Writing or uttering words with intent to wound religious feelings.

129. Hindering burial of dead body, etc.

Chapter XV
Offences against morality

130. Sexual assault.

131	[Repealed]

132. [Repealed]

133. Abduction.

133A. Abduction of girls under eighteen years.

134. Abduction of girls under sixteen.

135. Sexual interference with a child.

136. Sexual interference with dependant child.

137. Indecent Assault.

138. Procuration.

139. Procuring defilement by threats, etc.

140. Householder permitting defilement of girls under thirteen.

141. Detention of female in brothel and elsewhere.

142. Power to search.

143. Procuring for prostitution for purposes of gain.

144. Procuring for prostitution, etc., other than for purposes of gain.

145. [Repealed.]

146. Conspiracy to defile.

147. Abortion.

148. Abortion by woman with child.

149. Drugs and instruments for abortion.

149A. Medical termination of pregnancy.

150. Knowledge of age in offences against women.

151. Unnatural offences.

151A. Incest.

152. Display of or traffic in indecent material.

153. Insulting the modesty of a person.

154. Soliciting.

155. Brothel.

156. Living on earning of prostitution.

157. [Repealed]

157A. Prohibited observation and recording of private act.

157B. Prohibited observation and recording of private parts.

157C. Possession of prohibited visual recording.

157D. Distribution of prohibited visual recording.

157E. Interpretation.

157F. Immunity.

158. [Repealed]

Chapter XVI
Offences relating to marriage and domestic obligations

159. Fraudulent pretence of marriage.

160. Bigamy.

161. Fraudulently going through ceremony of marriage.

162. Desertion of children.

163. Neglecting children.

164. Failure to provide for apprentice or servants.

165. Child stealing.

Chapter XVIA
Antisocial behaviour order

165A. Antisocial behaviour order.

Chapter XVII
Nuisances and offences against health and convenience

166. Common nuisance.

167. Gaming houses.

168. Search warrants.

169. Presumptions.

170. Lotteries.

171. Keeper of premises defined.

172. Traffic in obscene publications.

173. Idle and disorderly persons.

173A. Prohibition of consumption of alcoholic liquor.

174. Rogues and vagabonds.

175. Wearing of uniform without authority.

176. Negligent spreading of disease.

177. Adulteration of food.

178. Sale of adultered food.

179. Adulteration of drugs.

180. Sale of adulterated drugs.

181. Fouling water.

182. Fouling air.

182A. Carrying out advice, etc., in matters of witchcraft.

183. Lighting fires, etc.

Chapter XVIII
Defamation

184. Definition of libel.

185. Definition of defamatory matter.

186. Publication.

187. Unlawful publication.

188. Absolute privilege.

189. Conditional privilege.

190. Good faith.

191. Presumptions as to good faith.

Division IV - Offences against the person

Chapter XIX
Murder and manslaughter

192. Manslaughter.

193. Murder.

194. Punishment of murder.

195. Punishment of manslaughter.

196. Malice aforethought.

196A. Persons suffering from diminished responsibility.

197. Killing on provocation.

198. Provocation defined.

199. Causing death defined.

200. Child capable of being killed.

201. Limitation as to time of death.

Chapter XX
Special provisions as to duties relating to the preservation of life and health

202. Persons having charge.

203. Head of family.

204. Masters and mistresses.

205. Person doing dangerous act.

206. Person in charge of dangerous thing.

Chapter XXI
Offences connected with murder and suicide

207. Attempt to murder.

208. Attempt to murder by convict.

209. Accessory after the fact to murder.

210. Written threat to murder.

211. Conspiracy to murder.

212. Complicity in another’s suicide.

213. Suicide pacts.

214. Infanticide.

215. Killing unborn child.

216. Concealment of birth.

Chapter XXII
Offences endangering life or health

217. Disabling with intent to commit crime.

218. Stupefying with intent.

219. Acts intended to cause grievous harm or to prevent arrests.

220. Preventing escape from wreck.

221. Grievous harm.

222. Placing explosive with intent.

223. Administering poison.

224. Unlawful wounding or poisoning.

225. Failure to supply necessaries.

226. Surgical operation.

227. Excess of force.

228. Consent.

Chapter XXIII
Criminal recklessness and negligence

229. Reckless and negligent acts.

230. Other negligent acts causing harm.

231. Dealing in poisonous substances in negligent manner.

232. Exhibition of false lights, mark or buoy.

233. Unsafe or overloaded vessel.

234. Obstructing public way or navigation.

Chapter XXIV
Assaults

235. Common assault.

236. Assaults occasioning actual bodily harm.

237. Assaults on persons protecting wrecks.

238. Assaults punishable with five years’ imprisonment.

Chapter XXV
Offences against liberty

239. Definition of Kidnapping from Seychelles.

240. Kidnapping from lawful guardianship.

241. Abduction.

242. Punishment for kidnapping.

243. Kidnapping or abducting with intent to murder.

244. Kidnapping with intent wrongfully to confine.

245. Kidnapping with intent to do harm, slavery, etc.

246. Wrongfully concealing kidnapped person.

247. Kidnapping child with intent to steal.

248. Punishment for wrongful confinement.

249. Buying or disposing of a person as slave.

250. Slave dealing.

251. Forced labour.

Division V - Offences relating to property

Chapter XXVI
Theft

252. Things capable of being stolen.

253. Definition of theft.

254. Special cases.

255. Funds held on trust or under direction.

256. Funds received by agents for sale.

257. Money received for another.

258. Theft by owner.

259. Husband and wife.

260. General punishment for theft.

261. Stealing wills.

262. Stealing postal matter.

263. Stealing cattle.

264. Stealing from the person, in transit, etc.

265. Stealing by public servants.

266. Stealing by clerks or servants.

267. Stealing by directors or officers of companies.

268. Stealing by agents.

269. Stealing by tenants or lodgers.

270. Stealing after previous conviction.

Chapter XXVII
Offences allied to stealing

271. Concealing registers.

272. Concealing wills.

273. Concealing title deeds.

274. Killing animal with intent to steal.

275. Severing with intent to steal.

276. Fraudulent disposal of mortgaged goods.

277. Fraudulent dealing with ores.

278. Fraudulent appropriation of power.

279. Unlawful use of vehicles, animals, etc.

Chapter XXVIII
Robbery and extortion

280. Definition of robbery.

281. Punishment of robbery.

282. Attempted robbery.

283. Assault with intent to steal.

284. Demanding property by written threat.

285. Threatening to accuse of crime with intent to extort.

286. Procuring execution of deed by threats.

287. Demanding thing with threats with intent to steal.

Chapter XXIX
Burglary, housebreaking and similar offences

288. Definition of breaking and entering.

289. Breaking and entering dwelling-houses, etc.

290. Entering dwelling-house with intent.

291. Breaking into shop, etc., and committing felony.

292. Breaking into shop, etc., with intent.

293. Armed, etc., with intent to commit felony.

294. Criminal trespass.

295. Forfeiture of housebreaking instruments.

Chapter XXX
False pretences

296. Definition of a false pretence.

297. Obtaining goods by false pretence.

298. Obtaining execution of security by false pretence.

299. Cheating.

299A. Issuing cheque without provision.

300. Obtaining credit by false pretence.

301. Conspiracy to defraud.

302. Frauds on sale or mortgage of property.

303. Pretending to deal in witchcraft and offences connected therewith.

304. Obtaining registration by false pretence.

305. False declaration for passport.

306. Possession of unauthorised weights, measures.

307. Possession of false weights.

308. Use of false instrument for weighing or false weight.

Chapter XXXI
Receiving property stolen or unlawfully obtained and like offences

309. Receiving property stolen or unlawfully obtained.

310. Unlawful possession.

311. Tracing possession.

312. Receiving property dishonestly acquired outside Seychelles.

Chapter XXXII
Frauds by trustees and persons in a position of trust, and false accounting

313. Fraudulent conversion by trustees.

314. Misappropriation and fraud by directors, and officers of corporation, etc.

315. Fraudulent publications as to companies, etc.

316. Fraudulent accounting by clerk.

317. Fraudulent accounting by public officer.

Division VI - Malicious injuries to property

Chapter XXXIII
Offences causing injury to property

318. Arson.

319. Attempts to commit arson.

320. Setting fire to crops, etc.

321. Attempts to set fire to crops, etc.

322. Casting away ships.

323. Attempts to cast ships.

324. Injuring animals.

325. Other malicious injuries; general and special punishments.

326. Attempted destruction by explosives.

327. Spreading infectious disease among animals.

328. Boundary marks - removal of.

329. Government boundary marks - damage to.

330. Threats to burn or destroy.

Division VII - Forgery, coining and counterfeiting

Chapter XXXIV
Definitions

331. Definition of forgery.

332. Document.

333. Making a false document.

334. Intent to defraud.

Chapter XXXV
Punishments for forgery

335. General punishment for forgery.

336. Forgeries punishable by imprisonment for life.

337. Forgeries punishable by imprisonment for ten years.

338. Forgeries punishable by imprisonment for seven years.

339. Uttering false documents.

340. Uttering cancelled or exhausted documents.

341. Procuring execution by false pretence.

342. Obliterating crossing on cheques.

343. Making documents without authority.

344. Demanding property on forged will.

345. Importing and purchasing forged bank notes.

346. Falsifying warrants for money.

347. Falsification of register.

348. False certificate of marriage.

349. False statement for registration.

Chapter XXXVI
Offences relating to coin and bank and currency notes

350. Definitions.

351. Counterfeiting coin.

352. Preparation for coining.

353. Making or having in possession paper or implements of forgery.

354. Clipping.

355. Melting down of currency.

356. Impounding and destruction of counterfeit coin.

357. Possession of clippings.

358. Uttering counterfeit coin.

359. Repeated uttering.

360. Uttering metal or coin not current as coin.

361. Selling articles bearing designs in imitation of currency.

362. Exporting counterfeit coin.

363. Forfeiture of counterfeit coin, etc.

Unlawful interference with identity information

363A. Interpretation.

363B. Dealing or in possession of prohibited items.

363C. Interfering with a computer system.

363D. Use computer system to commit offence.

363E. Possession of identity information.

363F. Trafficking in identity information.

363G. Attempt, conspiracy etc.

Counterfeit Stamps

364. Possession of die for purpose of making stamps.

365. Possession of paper for making stamps.

Chapter XXXVII
Personation

366. General penalty for personation.

367. Falsely making acknowledgment.

368. Personation of person named in certificate.

369. Lending certificate for personation.

370. Personating person named in a testimonial.

371. Lending testimonial.

Chapter XXXVIII
Secret commissions and corrupt practices

372. Interpretation.

373. Corrupt practices.

374. Secret commission on Government contracts.

375. Presumption as to corrupt practices.

376. Consent of Attorney-General to prosecution.

Division VIII - Attempts and conspiracies to commit crimes, and accessories after the fact

Chapter XXXIX
Attempts

377. Attempt defined.

377A. Soliciting or inciting others to commit offence.

378. General punishment for attempts.

379. Punishment for attempts to commit certain felonies.

380. Neglect to prevent commission of a felony.

Chapter XL
Conspiracies

381. Conspiracy to commit felony.

382. Conspiracy to commit misdemeanours.

383. Other conspiracies.

Chapter XLI
Accessories after the fact

384. Definition.

385. Punishment of accessories to felonies.

386. Punishment of accessories to misdemeanours.

12 of 1952,

10 of 1955,

4 of 1958,

21 of 1960,

7 of 1961,

36 of 1961,

30 of 1964,

17 of 1965,

1 of 1966,

8 of 1966,

30 of 1967,

11 of 1969,

7 of 1972,

2 of 1976,

23 of 1976,

29 of 1976,

23 of 1977,

6 of 1978,

21 of 1978,

31 of 1979,

4 of 1979,

7 of 1979,

31 of 1980,

5 of 1981,

24 of 1982,

16 of 1995,

15 of 1996,

10 of 2005,

2 of 2010,

20 of 2010,

5 of 2012,

7 of 2012,

11 of 2016,

12 of 2016.

SI 95 of 1975,

72 of 1976,

23 of 1987.

[Date of commencement: 1st February 1955]

PART I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Chapter I
Preliminary

1. Short title.

This Act may be cited as The Penal Code and hereinafter is referred to as “this Code”.

[Note: S 2 is omitted in the 1991 Ed.]

3. Saving of certain laws.

Nothing in this Code shall affect—

(a) the liability, trial or punishment of a person for an offence against any law in force in Seychelles other than this Code; or

(b) the liability of a person to be tried or punished for an offence under the provisions of any law in force in Seychelles relating to the jurisdiction of the courts of Seychelles in respect of acts done beyond the ordinary jurisdiction of such courts; or

(c) the power of any court to punish a person for contempt of such court; or

(d) the liability or trial of a person, or the punishment of a person under any sentence passed or to be passed, in respect of any act done or commenced before the commencement of this Code; or

(e) any power of the President to grant any pardon or to remit or commute in whole or in part or to respite the execution of any sentence passed or to be passed:

Provided that if a person does an act which is punishable under this Code and is also punishable under another Act or statute of any of the kinds mentioned in this section, he shall not be punished for that act both under that Act or statute and also under this Code.

Chapter II
Interpretation

4. General rule of construction.

This Code shall be interpreted in accordance with the principles of legal interpretation obtaining in England, and expressions used in it shall be presumed, so far as is consistent with their context, and except as may be otherwise expressly provided, to be used with the meaning attaching to them in English criminal law and shall be construed in accordance therewith.

5. Definition of certain expressions and terms.

In this Code, unless the context otherwise requires—

“Act” includes any orders or rules or regulations under the authority of any Act;

“court” means a court of competent jurisdiction;

“dangerous harm” means harm endangering life;

“dwelling-house” includes any building or structure or part of a building or structure which is for the time being kept by the owner or occupier for the residence therein of himself, his family or servants or any of them, and it is immaterial that it is from time to time uninhabited, a building or structure adjacent to or occupied with a dwelling-house is deemed to be part of the dwelling-house if there is a communication between such building or structure and the dwelling-house, either immediate or by means of a covered and enclosed passage leading from the one to the other, but not otherwise;

“felony” means an offence which is declared by law to be a felony or, if not declared to be a misdemeanour, is punishable, without proof of previous conviction, with imprisonment for three years or more;

[Am by s 2(a) of Act 10 of 2005 w.e.f. 18 July 2005.]

“grievous harm” means any harm which amounts to a maim or dangerous harm, or seriously or permanently injuries health or which is likely so to injure health, or which extends to permanent disfigurement or to any permanent or serious injury to any external or internal organ, membrane or sense;

“harm” means any bodily hurt, disease or disorder whether permanent or temporary;

“judicial proceeding” includes any proceeding had or taken in or before any court, tribunal, commission of inquiry or person, in which evidence may be taken on oath;

“knowingly” used in connection with any term denoting uttering or using, implies knowledge of the character of the thing uttered or used;

“local authority” means a local authority established under any Act;

“maim” means the destruction or permanent disabling of any external or internal organ, membrane or sense;

“misdemeanour” means any offence which is not a felony;

“money” includes bank notes, bank drafts, cheques and any other orders, warrants or requests for the payment of money;

“night” or “night-time” means the interval between seven o’clock in the evening and half-past five o’clock in the morning;

“oath” includes affirmation or declaration;

“offence” is an act, attempt or omission punishable by law;

“person” and “owner” and other like term when used with reference to property includes corporations of all kinds and any other association of persons capable of owning property, and also when so used includes the Republic or any person on behalf of the Republic;

“person employed in the public service” means any person holding any of the following offices or performing the duty thereof whether as a deputy or otherwise, namely—

(a) any Civil Office the power of appointing a person to which is vested in the President or in any public commission or broad; or

(b) any office to which a person is appointed or nominated by Act or statute or by election; or

(c) any civil office, the power of appointing to which or removing from which is vested in any person or persons holding an office of any kind included in either of the two last preceding paragraphs of this section; or

(d) any office of arbitrator or umpire in any proceeding or matter submitted to arbitration by order or with the sanction of any court, or in pursuance of any Act;

and the said term further includes—

(i) a Justice of the Peace;

(ii) a member of a commission of inquiry appointed under or in pursuance of any Act;

(iii) any person employed to execute any process of a court;

(iv) all persons belonging to the Defence Force;

(v) all persons in the employment of any government department;

(vi) a person acting as a minister of religion of whatsoever denomination in so far as he performs functions in respect of the notification of intending marriage or in the making or keeping of any register or certificate of marriage, birth, baptism, death or burial, but not in any other respect;

(vii) a person in the employ of a local authority;

“possession”, “be in possession of” or “have in possession”—

(a) includes not only having in one’s own personal possession, but also knowingly having anything in the actual possession or custody of any other person, or having anything in any place (whether belonging to, or occupied by oneself or not) for the use or benefit of oneself or of any other person;

(b) if there are two or more persons and any one or more of them with the knowledge and consent of the rest has or have anything in his or their custody or possession, it shall be deemed and taken to be in the custody or possession of each and all of them;

“property” includes anything animate or inanimate capable of being the subject of ownership;

“public” refers not only to all persons within Seychelles, but also to the person inhabiting or using any particular place, pr any number of such persons, and also to such indeterminate persons as may happen to be affected by the conduct in respect to which such expression is used;

“public way” includes any highway, market place, square, street, bridge or other way which is lawfully used by the public;

“public place” or “public premises” includes any public way and any building, place or conveyance to which, for the time being, the public are entitled or permitted to have access either without any condition or upon condition of making any payment, and any building or place which is for the time being used for any public or religious meeting or assembly or as an open court;

“publicly” when applied to acts done means either—

(a) that they are so done in any public place as to be seen by any person whether such person be or be not in a public place; or

(b) that they are so done in any place not being a public place as to be likely to be seen by any person in a public place;

“statute” means an Act of Parliament and includes any orders, rules regulations, bye-laws or other subsidiary legislation made or passed under the authority of any statute;

“utter” means and includes using or dealing with and attempting to use or deal with an attempting to induce any person to use, deal with or act upon the thing in question;

“valuable security” includes any document which is the property of any person, and which is evidence of the ownership of any property or of the right to recover or receive any property;

“vessel” includes a ship, a boat and every other kind of vessel used in navigation on the sea and includes aircraft;

“wound” means any incision or puncture which divides or pierces any exterior membrane of the body, and any membranes is exterior for the purpose of this definition which can be touched without dividing or piercing any other membrane.

Chapter III
Territorial application of this code

6. Extent of jurisdiction of Courts.

The jurisdiction of the courts of Seychelles for the purpose of this Code extends to every place within Seychelles and any place over which the Republic has jurisdiction.

[S 6 am by s 2(a) of Act 16 of 1995 w.e.f. 6 November 1995.]

7. Offence committed partly within and partly beyond the jurisdiction.

When an act which, if wholly done within the jurisdiction of the court, would be an offence against this Code, is done partly within and partly beyond the jurisdiction, every person who within the jurisdiction does or makes any part of such act may be tried and punished under this Code in the same manner as if such act had been done wholly within the jurisdiction.

Chapter IV
General rules as to criminal responsibility

8. Ignorance of law.

Ignorance of the law does not afford any excuse for any act or omission which would otherwise constitute an offence unless knowledge of the law by the offender is expressly declared to be an element of the offence.

9. Bona fide claim of right.

A person is not criminally responsible in respect of an offence relating to property, if the act done or omitted to be done by him with respect to the property was done in the exercise of an honest claim of right and without intention to defraud.

10. Intention and motive.

Subject to the express provisions of this Code relating to negligent acts and omissions, a person is not criminally responsible for an act or omission which occurs independently of the exercise of his will, or for an event which occurs by accident.

Unless the intention to cause a particular result is expressly declared to be an element of the offence constituted, in whole or part, by an act or omission, the result intended to be caused by an act or omission is immaterial.

Unless otherwise expressly declared, the motive by which a person is induced to do or omit to do an act, or to from an intention, is immaterial so far as regards criminal responsibility.

11. Mistake of fact.

A person who does or omits to do an act under an honest and reasonable, but mistaken, belief in the existence of any state of things is not criminally responsible for the act omission to any greater extent than if the real state of things had been such as he believed to exist.

The operation of this rule may be excluded by the express or implied provisions of the law relating to the subject.

12. Presumption of sanity.

Every person is presumed to be of sound mind, and to have been of sound mind at any time which comes in question, until the contrary is proved.

13. Insanity.

A person is not criminally responsible for an act or omission if at the time of doing the act or making the omission he is through any disease affecting his mind incapable of understanding what he is doing, or of knowing that he ought not to do the act or make the omission.

But a person may be criminally responsible for an act or omission, although his mind is affected by disease, if such disease does not in fact produce upon his mind one or other of the effects above mentioned in reference to that act or omission.

14. Intoxication.

(1) Save as provided in this section, intoxication shall not constitute a defence to any criminal charge.

(2) Intoxication shall be a defence to any criminal charge if by reason thereof the person charged at the time of the act or omission complained of did not know that such act or omission was wrong or did not know what he was doing and—

(a) the state of intoxication was caused without his consent by the malicious or negligent act of another person; or

(b) the person charged was by reason of intoxication insane, temporarily or otherwise, at the time of such act or omission.

(3) Where the defence under subsection (2) is established, then in a case falling under paragraph (a) thereof the accused person shall be discharged, and in a case falling under paragraph (b) the provisions of section 13 shall apply.

(4) Intoxication shall be taken into account for the purpose of determining whether the person charged had formed any intention,, specific or otherwise, in the absence of which he would not be guilty of the offence.

(5) For the purposes of this section “intoxication” shall be deemed to include a state produced by narcotics or drugs.

15. Immature age.

A person under the age of seven years is not criminally responsible for any act or omission.

A person under the age of twelve years is not criminally responsible for an act or omission, unless it is proved that at the time of doing the act or making the omission he had capacity to know that he ought not to do the act or make the omission.

A male person under the age of twelve years is presumed to be incapable of having carnal knowledge.

16. Judicial officers.

Except as expressly provided by this Code, a judicial officer is not criminally responsible for anything done or omitted to be done by him in the exercise of his judicial functions, although the act done is in excess of his judicial authority or although he is bound to do the act omitted to be done.

17. Compulsion.

A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if it is committed by two or more offenders, and if the act is done or omitted only because during the whole of the time in which it is being done or omitted the person is compelled to do or omit to do the act by threats on the part of the other offender or offenders instantly to kill him or do him grievous bodily harm if he refuses, but threats of future injury do not excuse any offence.

18. Defence of person and property.

Subject to any express provisions in this Code or any other law in operation in Seychelles criminal responsibility for the use of force in the defence of person or property shall be determined according to the principles of English common law.

19. Use of force in effecting arrest.

Where any person is charged with a criminal offence arising out of the lawful arrest, or attempted arrest, by him of a person who forcibly resists such arrest or attempts to evade being arrested, the court shall, in considering whether the means used were necessary, or the degree of force used was reasonable, for the apprehension of such person, have regard to the gravity of the offence which had been or was being committed by such person and the circumstances in which such offence had been or was being committed by such person.

20. ...

[S 20 rep by s 2(b) of Act 10 of 2005 w.e.f. 18 July 2005.]

21. Persons not to be twice criminally responsible for same offence.

A person cannot be twice criminally responsible either under the provisions of this Code or under the provisions of any other law for the same act or omission, except in the case where the act or omission is such that by means thereof he causes the death of another person, in which case he may be convicted of the offence of which he is guilty by reason of causing such death, notwithstanding that he has already been convicted of some other offence constituted by the act or omission.

Chapter V
Parties and offences

22. Principal offenders.

When an offence is committed, each of the following person is deemed to have taken part in committing the offence and be guilty of the offence, and may be charged with actually committing it, that is to say—

(a) every person who actually does the act or makes the omission which constitutes the offence;

(b) every person who does or omits to do any act for the purpose of enabling or aiding another person to commit the offence;

(c) every person who aids or abets another person in committing the offence;

(d) any person who counsels or procures any other person to commit the offence.

In the fourth case he may be charged with himself committing the offence or with counselling or procuring its commission.

A conviction of counselling or procuring the commission of an offence entails the same consequences in all respects as a conviction of committing the offence.

Any person who procures another to do or omit to do any act of such nature that, if he had himself done the act or made the omission, the act or omission would have constituted an offence on his part, is guilty of an offence of the same kind, and is liable to the same punishment, as if he had himself done the act or made the omission, and he may be charged with himself doing the act or making the omission.

23. Joint offenders.

When two or more persons form a common intention to prosecute an unlawful purpose in conjunction with one another, and in the prosecution of such purpose an offence is committed of such a nature that its commission was a probable consequence of the prosecution of such purpose, each of them is deemed to have committed the offence.

24. Counselling to commit an offence.

When a person counsels another to commit an offence, and an offence is actually committed after such counsel by the person to whom it is given, it is immaterial whether the offence actually committed is the same as that counselled or a different one, or whether the offence is committed in the way counselled or in a different way, provided in either case that the facts constituting the offence actually committed are a probable consequence of carrying out the counsel.

In either case the person who gave counsel is deemed to have counselled the other person to commit the offence actually committed by him.

Chapter VI
Punishments

25. Different kinds of punishment.

The following punishments may be inflicted by a court—

(a) ...

[S 25(a) rep by s 2(a) of Act 15 of 1996 w.e.f. 12 August 1996.]

(b) Fine.

(c) Payment of compensation.

(d) Finding security to keep the peace and be of good behaviour.

(e) Liability to police supervision.

(f) Forfeiture.

(g) Any other punishment provided by this Code or by any other law or Act.

26. Imprisonment.

(1) A person liable to imprisonment for life or any other period may be sentenced for any shorter term.

(2) A person liable to imprisonment may be sentenced to pay a fine in addition to or instead of imprisonment.

27. Minimum sentence.

[Note: Act 16 of 1995 inserted a new section 27A (“Minimum sentence”) after section 27. The text of the new section was substantially but not entirely incorporated into section 27 in the 1996 Ed. The text of this book reflects the official text (of the 1996 Ed) rather than the text as gazetted.]

(1) Notwithstanding Section 26 and any other written law and subject to subsection (2), a person who is convicted of an offence in Chapter XXVI, Chapter XXVIII or Chapter XXIX shall—

(a) where the offence is punishable with imprisonment for seven years or more but not more than eight years and—

(i) it is the first conviction of the person for such an offence, be sentenced to imprisonment for a period of not less than five years; or

(ii) the person had within five years prior to the date of the conviction, been convicted of the same or a similar offence, be sentenced to imprisonment for a period of not less than 10 years.

(b) where the offence is punishable with imprisonment for more than eight years but not more than 10 years and—

(i) it is the first conviction of the person for such an offence, be sentenced to imprisonment for a period of not less than eight years; or

(ii) the person had within five years prior to the date of conviction, been convicted of the same or a similar offence, be sentenced to imprisonment for a period of not less than 12 years.

(c) where the offence is punishable with imprisonment for more than 10 years or with imprisonment for life and—

(i) it is the first conviction of the person for such an offence, be sentenced to imprisonment for a period of not less than 15 years; or

(ii) the person had, within five years prior to the date of the conviction, been convicted of the same or of a similar offence, be sentenced to imprisonment for not less than 25 years.

[S 27(1) rep and subs by s 2(a)(i) of Act 5 of 2012 w.e.f. 6 August 2012.]

(2) A court shall not impose the minimum mandatory sentence provided under section 27(1)(a)(i), 27(1)(b)(i) and 27(1)(c)(i) if the Court is satisfied that—

(a) the person did not use or threaten violence or was not in possession of dangerous weapons or did not aid and abet the commission of the offence; and

(b) the offence did not result in the death of, or serious bodily injury to, another person;

(c) the offence did not consist in, include or involve stealing from another person;

(d) the offence did not consist in, include or involve stealing from a building, dwelling house, vessel or vehicle; and

(e) the offence did not consist in, include or involve breaking into or entering into a building, dwelling house, vessel or vehicle.

[S 27(2) ins by s 2(a)(ii) of Act 5 of 2012 w.e.f. 6 August 2012.]

(3) For the purposes of subsection (1) “similar offence” means an offence falling within the same Chapter as the offence for which the person is being sentenced.

[S 27(2) renumbered as s 27(3) by s 2(a)(iii) of Act 5 of 2012 w.e.f. 6 August 2012.]

(4) An offence referred to in subsection (1) shall be deemed to be an “excepted offence” for the purposes of section 282 of the Criminal Procedure Code.

[S 27(3) renumbered as s 27(4) by s 2(a)(iii) of Act 5 of 2012 w.e.f. 6 August 2012.]

28. Fines.

Where a fine is imposed under any law, then in the absence of express provisions relating to such fine in such law the following provisions shall apply—

(a) where no sum is expressed to which the fine may extend, the amount of the fine which may be imposed is unlimited, but shall not be excessive;

(b) in the case of an offence punishable with a fine or a term of imprisonment, the imposition of a fine or a term of imprisonment shall be a matter for the discretion of the court;

(c) in the case of an offence punishable with imprisonment as well as a fine in which the offender is sentenced to a fine with or without imprisonment and in every case of an offence punishable with fine only in which the offender is sentenced to a fine the court passing sentence may, in its discretion—

(i) direct by its sentence that in default of payment of a fine the offender shall suffer imprisonment for a certain term, which imprisonment shall be in addition to any other imprisonment to which he may have been sentenced or to which he may be liable under a commutation of sentence; and also

(ii) issue a warrant for the levy of the amount on the immovable and movable property of the offender by distress and sale under warrant:

Provided that if the sentence directs that in default of payment of the fine the offender shall be imprisoned, and if such offender has undergone the whole of such imprisonment in default, no court shall issue a distress warrant unless for special reasons to be recorded in writing it considers it necessary to do so.

(d) the imprisonment which is imposed in default of payment of a fine shall terminate whenever the fine is either paid or levied by process of law.

29. Forfeiture.

When any person is convicted of an offence under any of the following sections, namely, sections 91, 92, 93, 111, 112
and 374, the court may, in addition to or
in lieu of any penalty which may be imposed, order the forfeiture to the Republic of any property which has passed in connection with the commission of the offence or, if such property cannot be forfeited or cannot be found, of such sum as the court shall assess as the value of the property, and any property or sum so forfeited shall be dealt with in such manner as the President may direct. Payment of any sum so ordered to be forfeited may be enforced in the same manner and subject to the same incidents as in the case of the payment of a fine.

30. Compensation.

Any person who is convicted of an offence may be adjudged to make compensation to any person injured by his offence. Any such compensation may be either in addition to or in substitution for any other punishment.

30A. Compensation for owner deprived of property.

(1) Notwithstanding section 30 and any other written law to the contrary, where a person is convicted of an offence under Chapter XXVI, Chapter XXVIII or Chapter XXIX the court shall, in addition to the sentence prescribed for the offence, order the person to compensate the owner of property who has been deprived of the property as a result of the commission of that offence.

(2) The court shall make a compensation order under this section when—

(a) it is proved at the trial that the owner has not been able to recover the property of which the owner has been deprived; or

(b) the uncontroverted facts of the case as disclosed by the prosecution after the accused pleads guilty reveal that the owner has not been able to recover the property of which the owner has been deprived.

(3) The amount of compensation ordered to be paid under this section shall be not less than the market value of the property at the time the owner was deprived thereof and the burden of proving such value shall lie on the prosecution.

(4) Where the person ordered to pay compensation is sentenced to imprisonment the compensation order shall take effect at the expiry of the person’s term of imprisonment and release from prison.

(5) A compensation order shall specify the manner and form of the payment of compensation and may include, if need be, conditions of such payment.

(6) If a person without reasonable cause fails to comply with a compensation order, the person commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand rupees.

(7) When a person is convicted of an offence under subsection (6), the court may, in addition to, or in lieu of, any penalty which may be imposed, order the forfeiture to the Republic of such property of the person as is equal in value to the amount of compensation ordered by the court and the property so forfeited may be dealt with in such manner as the court may direct to give effect to the compensation order.

(8) The court may call the case on its own motion or upon the application of any party appearing at the trial at any time after imposing the sentence so as to make an appropriate order to give effect to, alter or modify a compensation order.

[S 30A ins by s 2(b) of Act 20 of 2010 w.e.f. 17 August 2010.]

31. Costs.

Subject to the limitations imposed by section 146 of the Criminal Procedure Code a court may order any person convicted of an offence to pay the costs of and incidental to the prosecution or any part thereof.

32. Security for keeping the peace.

A person convicted of an offence not punishable with imprisonment for life may, instead of, or in addition to, any punishment to which he is liable, be ordered to enter into his own recognizance, with or without sureties, in such amount as the court thinks fit, that he shall keep the peace and be of good behaviour for a time to be fixed by the court, and may be ordered to be imprisoned until such recognizance, with sureties if so directed, is entered into, but so that the imprisonment for not entering into the recognizance shall not extend for a term longer than one year, and shall not, together with the fixed term of imprisonment if any, extend for a term longer than the longest term for which he might be sentenced to be imprisoned without fine.

[S 32 am by s 2(c) of Act 10 of 2005 w.e.f. 18 July 2005.]

33. Repealed.

(Repealed by the Probation of Offenders Act).

34. Certain provisions of Criminal Procedure Code to apply to recognizances under sections 32 and 33.

The provisions of sections 105, 106 and 108, of the Criminal Procedure Code shall apply mutatis mutandis to recognizances taken under section 32 of this Code.

35. General Punishment for misdemeanours.

When in this Code no punishment is especially provided for any misdemeanour, it shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or with a fine or with both.

36. Sentences cumulative, unless otherwise ordered.

Where a person after conviction for an offence is convicted of another offence, either before sentence is passed upon him under the first conviction or before the expiration of that sentence, any sentence, which is passed upon him under the subsequent conviction, shall be executed after the expiration of the former sentence, unless the court directs that it shall be executed concurrently with the former sentence or of any part thereof:

[S 36 am by s 2(c) of Act 10 of 2005 w.e.f. 18 July 2005.]

Provided that it shall not be lawful for a court to direct that any sentence under Chapter XXVI, Chapter XXVIII or Chapter XXIX be executed or made to run concurrently with one another or that a sentence of imprisonment in default of a fine be executed concurrently with the former sentence under section 28(c)(i) of this Code, or any part thereof.

[S 36 proviso rep and subs by s 2(c) of Act 20 of 2010 w.e.f. 17 August 2010.]

37. Escaped convicts to serve unexpired sentences when recaptured.

When sentence is passed under this Code on an escaped convict, such sentence—

(a) if a fine shall, subject to the provisions of this Code, take effect immediately;

[S 37(a) am by s 2(e) of Act 10 of 2005 w.e.f. 18 July 2005.]

(b) if of imprisonment, shall run consecutively or concurrently, as the court shall order, with the unexpired portion of the sentence which the convict was undergoing when he escaped.

38. Repealed.

(Repealed by the Probation of Offenders Act).

PART II

CRIMES

Division I

Offences Against Public Order

Chapter VII
Treason and other offences against the authority of the Republic

39. Treason.

(1) A person who—

(a) levies war, or does any act preparatory to levying war, against Seychelles;

(b) assists by any means whatever, with intent to assists, an enemy—

(i) at war with Seychelles, whether or not a state of war has been declared; and

(ii) specified by Proclamation made by the President for the purposes of this paragraph, to be an enemy at war with Seychelles;

(c) instigates any foreigner to make an armed invasion of Seychelles; or

(d) forms an intention to do any act referred to in a preceding paragraph and manifests that intention by an overt act,

is guilty of treason and liable on conviction to imprisonment for life.

[S 39(1) am by s 2(b) of Act 15 of 1996 w.e.f. 12 August 1996.]

(2) On the trial of a person charged with treason on the ground that he formed an intention to do an act referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of subsection (1) and manifested that intention by an overt act, evidence of the overt act shall not be admitted unless the overt act was alleged in the indictment.

(3) A person who is not a citizen of Seychelles shall not be punishable under this section for anything done outside Seychelles, but a citizen of Seychelles may be tried for an offence under this section as if it had been committed within the jurisdiction of the court.

40. Concealment of treason.

A person who—

(a) receives or assists another person who is, to his knowledge, guilty of treason in order to enable him to escape punishment; or

(b) knowing that a person intends to commit treason, does not give information thereof with all reasonable dispatch to the President, or a member of the Cabinet or a police officer or use other reasonable endeavours to prevent the commission of the offence,

is guilty of the felony of misprision of treason and liable on conviction to imprisonment for life.

41. Two witnesses.

A person shall not be convicted (except on his own plea of guilty) of an offence under section 39 or 40 upon the uncorroborated testimony of one witness.

42. Limitations as to trials for treason.

A prosecution for an offence under section 39 or 40 shall be commenced not later than two years after the commission of the offence.

43. Repealed.

(Repealed by Act 29 of 1976.)

44. Inciting to mutiny.

Any person who advisedly attempts to effect any of the following purposes, that is to say—

(a) to seduce any person serving in the Defence Force or any member of the police force from his duty; or

(b) to incite any such persons to commit an act of mutiny or any traitorous or mutinous act; or

(c) to incite any such persons to make or endeavour to make a mutinous assembly,

is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for life.

45. Aiding in acts of mutiny.

Any person who—

(a) aids, abets, or is accessory to, any act of mutiny by; or

(b) incites to sedition or to disobedience to any lawful order given by,

[S 45(b) am by s 2(f) of Act 10 of 2005 w.e.f. 18 July 2005.]

a superior officer, any non-commissioned officer or private of the Defence Force or any police officer, is guilty of a misdemeanour.

46. Inducing desertion.

Any person who, by any means whatever, directly or indirectly—

(a) procures or persuades or attempts to procure or persuade to desert; or

(b) aids, abets, or is accessory to the desertion of; or

(c) having reason to believe he is a deserter, harbours or aids in concealing,

any non-commissioned officer or private of the Defence Force or any police officer, is guilty of a misdemeanour, and is liable to imprisonment for six months.

47. Aiding prisoner of war to escape.

Any person who—

(a) knowingly and advisedly aids an alien enemy of the Republic, being a prisoner of war in Seychelles, whether such prisoner is confined in a prison or elsewhere or is suffered to be at large on his parole, to escape from his prison or place of confinement, or if he is at large on his parole, to escape from Seychelles, is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for life;

(b) negligently and unlawfully permits to escape of any such person as is mentioned in the last preceding paragraph, is guilty of a misdemeanour.

48. Definition of overt act.

In the case of any of the offences defined in this chapter, when the manifestation by an overt act of an intention to effect any purpose is an element of the element of the offence, every act of conspiring with any person to effect that purpose and every act done in furtherance of the purpose by any of the persons conspiring, is deemed to be an overt act manifesting the intention.

49. Definitions.

For the purposes of the eight next following sections of this Code—

“import” includes—

(a) to bring into Seychelles; and

(b) to bring within the territorial waters of Seychelles whether or not the publication is brought ashore, and whether or not there is an intention to bring the same ashore.

“publication” includes all written or printed matter and everything, whether of a nature similar to written or printed matter or not, containing any visible representation, or by its form, shape, or in any manner capable of suggesting words or ideas, and every copy and reproduction of any publication;

“periodical publication” includes every publication issued periodically or in parts or numbers at intervals whether regular or irregular;

“seditious publication” means a publication having a seditious intention;

“seditious words” means words having a seditious intention;

“the public interest” means the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health.

50. Power to prohibit importation of publication.

(1) If the President is of the opinion that there is in any publication or series or publications published outside Seychelles by any person or association of persons matter which is contrary to the public interest, he may, in his absolute discretion, by order published in the Gazette, declare that that particular publication or series of publications, or all publications published by that person or association of persons, shall be a prohibited publication or prohibited publications, as the case may be.

(2) If an order made under the provisions of subsection (1) specified by name a publication which is a periodical publication, such order shall, unless a contrary intention be expressed therein, have effect—

(a) with respect to all subsequent issues of such publication; and

(b) not only with respect to any publication under that name, but also with respect to any publication published under any other name if the publishing thereof is in any respect a continuation of, or in substitution for, the publishing of the publication named in the order.

(3) If an order made under the provisions of subsection (1) declares that all publications published by a specified person or association of persons shall be prohibited publications, such order shall, unless a contrary intention be expressed therein, have effect not only with respect to all publications published by that person or association of persons before the date of the order but also with respect to all publications so published on or after such date.

(4) An order made under the provisions of subsection (1) shall, unless a contrary intention is expressed therein, apply to any translation into any language whatsoever of the publications specified in the order.

(5) Where an order has been made under subsection (1) declaring any series of publications or all publications published by any person or association of persons to be prohibited publications or specifying by name a publication which is a periodical publication, any person who wishes to import into Seychelles any particular publication in that series or published by that person or association or being a publication with respect to which the order is required by subsections (2) and (3) to have effect, may apply in writing to the Secretary to the Cabinet for a permit in that behalf, and, unless the Secretary to the Cabinet is satisfied that the publication contains matter which is contrary to the public interest, he shall grant such a permit and the order shall thereupon cease to have effect with respect to that publication.

(6) Any person whose application to the Secretary to the Cabinet under subsection (5) of this section has been refused may appeal against such refusal to the President whose decision thereon shall be final.

51. Offences in relation to importation of prohibited publications.

(1) Any person who imports, publishes, sells, offers for sale, distributes or reproduces any publication, the importation of which has been prohibited under section 50, or any extract therefrom, shall be guilty of an offence and liable for a first offence to imprisonment for two years or to a fine not exceeding Rs.1,500, or to both such imprisonment and fine, and for a subsequent offence to imprisonment for three years, and such publication or extract therefrom shall be forfeited to the Republic.

(2) Any person who without lawful excuse has in his possession any publication the importation of which has been prohibited under section 50, or any extract therefrom, shall be guilty of an offence and liable for a first offence to imprisonment for one year or to a fine not exceeding Rs.500 or to both such imprisonment and fine, and for a subsequent offence to imprisonment for two years, and such publication to extract therefrom shall be forfeited to the Republic.

52. Delivery of prohibited publication to police station.

(1) Any person to whom any publication the importation of which has been prohibited under section 50, or any extract therefrom, is sent without his knowledge or privity or in response to a request made before the prohibition of the importation of such publication came into effect, or who has such a publication or extract therefrom in his possession at the time when the prohibition of its importation comes into effect, shall forthwith if or as soon as the nature of its contents have become known to him, or in the case of a publication or extract therefrom coming into the possession of such person before an order prohibiting its importation has been made, forthwith upon the coming into effect of an order prohibiting the importation of such publication, deliver such publication or extract therefrom to the officer in charge of the nearest police station, and in default thereof shall be guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment for one year or to a fine not exceeding Rs.500 or to both such imprisonment and fine, and such publication or extract therefrom shall be forfeited to the Republic.

(2) Any person who complies with the provisions of subsection (1), or is convicted of an offence under that subsection, shall not be liable to be convicted for having imported or having in his possession the same publication or extract therefrom.

53. Power to examine suspected packages.

(1) Any of the following officers, that is to say—

(a) the Chief Postmaster;

(b) the Collector of Customs;

(c) any police officer not below the rank of Assistant Superintendent;

(d) any other officer authorised in that behalf by the President,

may detain, open and examine any package or article which he suspects to contain any publication or extract therefrom which it is an offence under the provisions of section 51 to import, publish, sell, offer for sale, distribute, reproduce or possess, and during such examination may detain any person importing, distributing or posting such package or article or in whose possession such package or article is found.

(2) If any such publication or extract therefrom is found in such package or article, the whole package or article may be impounded and retained by the officer and the person importing, distributing or posting it, or in whose possession it is found, may forthwith be arrested and proceeded against for the commission of an offence under section 51 or section 52, as the case may be.

54. Seditious intention.

(1) An intention to effect any of the following purposes, that is to say—

(a) to bring the President into hatred or contempt;

(b) to excite disaffection against the Government, the Constitution or the National Assembly;

[S 54(1)(b) am by s 2(g) of Act 10 of 2005 w.e.f. 18 July 2005.]

(c) to excite the people of Seychelles to attempt to procure the alteration, otherwise than by lawful means, of any matter in Seychelles established by law;

(d) to bring into hatred or contempt or to excite disaffection against the administration of justice in Seychelles;

(e) to raise discontent or disaffection amongst the people of Seychelles;

(f) to promote feelings of ill-will and hostility between different sections of the population of Seychelles,

is a seditious intention.

(2) An intention—

(a) to endeavour in good faith to show that the persons responsible for the Government have been or are mistaken in any of their counsels, policies or actions;

(b) to point out in good faith errors or defects in the Government, the Constitution, the National Assembly or the administration of Justice with a view to the reformation of those errors or defects;

[S 54(2)(b) am by s 2(g) of Act 10 of 2005 w.e.f. 18 July 2005.]

(c) to excite in goods faith another person to attempt to procure by lawful means the alteration of any matter established by law in Seychelles;

(d) to appoint out in good faith, in order to bring about their removal, any matters that are producing, or have a tendency to produce, feelings of ill-will or hostility between different classes of persons,

is not a seditious intention.

(3) In determining whether an intention to affect any purpose is a seditious intention, every person shall be deemed to intend the consequences which would naturally follow from effecting that purpose.

55. Seditious offences.

(1) Any person who—

(a) does or attempts to do, or makes any preparation to do any act with a seditious intention;

(b) utters any seditious words;

(c) prints, publishes, sells, offers for sale, distributes or reproduces any seditious publication;

(d) imports any seditious publication, unless he has no reason to believe that it is seditious,

shall be guilty of an offence and liable for a first offence to imprisonment for two years or to a fine not exceeding Rs.1000 or to both such imprisonment and fine, and for a subsequent offence to imprisonment for three years, and any seditious publication shall be forfeited to the Republic.

(2) Any person who without lawful excuse has in his possession any seditious publication shall be guilty of an offence and liable for a first offence to imprisonment for one year or to a fine not exceeding Rs.500 or to both such imprisonment and fine, and for a subsequent offence to imprisonment for two years, and such publication shall be forfeited to the Republic.

(3) It shall be a defence to a charge under subsection (2) that, if the person charged did not know that the publication was seditious when it came into his possession, he did, as soon as the nature of the publication became known to him, deliver the publication to the officer in charge of the nearest police station.

(4) Any printing machine which has been, or is reasonably suspected of being, used for or in connection with the printing or reproducing of a seditious publication may be seized or otherwise secured by a police officer pending the trial and conviction or discharge or acquittal of any person accused of printing or reproducing any seditious publication, and, when any person is convicted of printing or reproducing a seditious publication, the court may, in addition to any other penalty which it may impose, order that the printing machine on which the publication was printed or reproduced shall be either confiscated for a period not exceeding three years, or be forfeited, and may make such order whether or not the person convicted is, or was at the time when the publication was printed or reproduced, the owner of the printing machine, a printing machine forfeited under this subsection shall be disposed of as the President shall direct.

(5) When a proprietor, publisher, printer or editor of a newspaper, as defined in the Newspaper Act is convicted of printing or publishing a seditious publication in a newspaper, the court may, in addition to any other punishment it may impose, and whether or not it has made an order under subsection (4), make an order prohibiting any further publication of the newspaper for a period not exceeding three years.

(6) The court may, at any time, on the application of the Attorney-General and on taking such security, if any, for good behaviour as the court may see fit to order, revoke any order made by it forfeiting or confiscating a printing machine or prohibiting further publication of a newspaper.

(7) A court before ordering the forfeiture or confiscation of a printing machine under this section shall be satisfied that the printing machine was the printing machine upon or by which the seditious publication was printed or reproduced.

(8) In any case in which a printing machine has been secured or confiscated under this section the Commissioner of Police may, in his discretion, cause—

(a) the printing machine or any part of it to be removed; or

(b) any part of the machine to be sealed so as to prevent its use:

Provided that the owner of the printing machine or his agents shall be entitled to reasonable access to it keep it in working order.

(9) The Commissioner of Police or any police officer acting in pursuance of the powers conferred by this section shall not be liable for any damage caused to a printing machine, whether by neglect or otherwise, not being damage wilfully caused to the machine.

(10) Any person who uses or attempts to use a printing machine confiscated under subsection (4) is guilty of an offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years.

(11) Any person who prints or publishes a newspaper in contravention of an order made under subsection (5) is guilty of an offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years.

(12) In this section, “printing machine” includes a printing press, copying press, type-setting machine, photographic, duplicating or engraving apparatus, or other machine or apparatus used for or in connection with printing or reproducing publications and the type, appurtenances and equipment thereof.

56. Legal proceedings.

(1) No prosecution for an offence under section 55 of this Code shall be begun except within six months after the offence is committed:

Provided that, where a person leaves Seychelles within six months of committing such offence, the prosecution for such offence may be begun within the six months from the date that such person returns to Seychelles after leaving it.

(2) A person shall not be prosecuted for an offence under section 55 of the Code without the written consent of the Attorney-General.

57. Evidence.

No person shall be convicted of an offence under section 55 of this code on the uncorroborated testimony of one witness.

58. Unlawful oath to commit capital offence.

Any person who—

(a) administers, or is present at and consents to the administering of, any oath or engagement in the nature of an oath, purporting to bind the person who takes it, to commit any offence punishable with imprisonment for life; or

[S 58(a) am by s 2(h) of Act 10 of 2005 w.e.f. 18 July 2005.]

(b) takes any such oath or engagement, not being compelled to do so,

is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for life.

59. Other unlawful oaths.

Any person who—

(a) administers, or is present at and consents to the administering of, any oath or engagement in the nature of an oath, purporting to bind the person who takes it to act in any of the ways following, that is to say—

(i) to engage in any mutinous or seditious enterprise;

(ii) to commit any felony;

[S 59(a)(ii) am by s 2(i) of Act 10 of 2005 w.e.f. 18 July 2005.]

(iii) to disturb the public peace;

(iv) to be member of any association, society or confederacy formed for the purpose of doing any such act as aforesaid;

(v) to obey the orders or commands of any committee or body of men not lawfully constituted, or of any leader or commander or other person not having authority by law for that purpose;

(vi) not to inform or give evidence against any associate, confederate or other person;

(vii) not to reveal or discover any unlawful association, society or confederacy, or any illegal act done or to be done, or any illegal oath or engagement that may have been administered or tendered to or taken by himself or any other person, or the import of any such oath or engagement, or

(b) takes any such oath or engagement, not being compelled to do so,

is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

60. Defence of compulsion.

A person who takes any such oath or engagement as is mentioned in sections 58 and 59 cannot set up as a defence that he was compelled to do so, unless within fourteen days after taking it, or, if he is prevented by actual force or sickness, within fourteen days after the termination of such prevention, he declares by information an oath before a magistrate, or, if he is on actual service in the Defence Force, or in the police force, either by such information or by information to his commanding officer, the whole of what he knows concerning the matter, including the person or persons by whom and in whose presence, and the place where, and the time when, the oath or engagement was administered or taken.

61. Unlawful drilling.

(1) Any person who—

(a) without the permission of the President trains or drills any other person to the use of arms or the practice of military exercises, movements, or evolution’s; or

(b) is present at any meeting or assembly of persons, held without the permission of the President for the purpose of training or drilling any other persons to the use of arms or the practice of military exercises, movements or evolutions,

is guilty of a felony, and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

(2) Any person who, at any meeting or assembly held without the permission of the President is trained or drilled to the use of arms or the practice of military exercises, movements, or evolution’s, or who is present at any such meeting or assembly for the purpose of being so trained or drilled, is guilty of a misdemeanour.

62. Publication of false news with intent to cause fear and alarm to the public.

(1) Any person who publishes, whether orally or in writing or otherwise, any statement, rumour or report which is likely to cause fear and alarm to the public or to disturb the public peace, knowing or having reason to believe that such statement, rumour or report is false, shall be guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment for three years.

(2) It shall be no defence to a charge under subsection (1) that he did not know or did not have reason to believe that the statement, rumour or report was false unless he proves that, prior to publication, he took reasonable measures to verify the accuracy of such statement, rumour or report.

62A. Defamation of President.

Any person who with intent to bring the President into hatred, ridicule or contempt publishes any defamatory or insulting matte whether in writing, print, word of mouth or in any other manner shall be guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment for three years.

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